Treatment targets and monitoring | Diabetes Hub

Find out the blood sugar levels and body mass index you should aim to meet, and how you can go about monitoring them.

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Treatment targets and monitoring

Targets to meet

Healthy eating habits and regular physical activity and exercise can help you achieve target levels of blood sugar control, blood pressure and cholesterol.

Speak to your care team as your targets may vary.

Blood pressure (mmHg)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
≥ 8.1
Blood pressure (mmHg)
≥ 160/100
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
≥ 3.4
7.1 - 8.0
Blood pressure (mmHg)
140/80 to 159/99
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
2.6 to 3.3
≤ 7
Blood pressure (mmHg)
< 140/80
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
< 2.6
Speak with your care team as your targets may vary
^HbA1c tells you how your blood sugar control has been like the past 3 months.
*The HbA1c cut-offs are updated as of November 2023.

Different ways to test your blood sugar level

At home using glucometer

Lets you find out 'at the moment' level of sugar (glucose) in your blood.

Learn more at Self monitoring of blood sugar

Done at the clinic

Reveals HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin), i.e., the sugar (glucose) attached to protein in red blood cells.

It also shows your average blood sugar level over 3 months.

If you have Type 2 diabetes

Consider self-monitoring (using a glucometer), if you are:

At increased risk of developing hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar)
Pregnant with pre-existing diabetes or Gestational Diabetes
Experiencing acute illness
Having difficulty achieving glycaemic goals
Fasting for religious reasons (e.g., Ramadan)

Managing your weight

Weight management is an important part of diabetes care. It helps you achieve better blood sugar levels, so keeping within your weight within an optimal range is important.

Body Mass Index

Body Mass Index (BMI) screens for weight categories that may lead to increased risk of cardiovascular health problems, but it does not diagnose your body fatness or health.

BMI is one of the many useful tools you can use to track your health.

For Asians, a BMI of 23 or more is considered to be at increased risk.

Even losing 5 – 10% of your weight can help lower your blood sugar levels, blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Speak to your healthcare team for personalised advice on how best to achieve or maintain an optimal weight.

Calculate your BMI using the following formula, then check against the table below:

Weight (kg)
Height (m) x Height (m)

WHO Asian classification of BMI risk category

BMI (kg/m2)
Health Risk
27.5 and above
High risk for cardiovascular diseases^
Moderate risk for cardiovascular diseases^
18.5-22.9 [optimal]
Low risk for cardiovascular diseases^
Below 18.5
Risk of nutritional deficiency diseases and osteoporosis
^Cardiovascular diseases affect the heart or blood vessels, and include heart disease and stroke.

What to do when you feel unwell

This applies to common illness such as fever, cough, runny nose, vomiting and diarrhoea.

See your doctor
Discuss with your healthcare team if dose adjustments need to be made
Get plenty of rest
Check your blood sugar level more often
Drink plenty of water
Have small, frequent meals or fluids (e.g., soups, diluted juices or sweetened drinks)

When to see your doctor

Chest pains, shortness of breath, fruity breath, dry lips or tong or abdominal pain
Severe vomiting or diarrhoea for more than 6 hours
Recurrently low blood sugar levels (less than 4 mmol/L) or persistently high (more than 16 mmol/L) for over 24 hours
Loss of appetite
Skin sores
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