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National Diabetes Reference Materials - An initiative under the War on Diabetes
“At the moment” level of sugar (glucose) in your blood
Before a meal or 2 hours
When you experience hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) symptoms (e.g dizziness, hunger
Before or after
When you are
sick and not feeling well
Risk of hyperglycaemia
> 7.0 mmol/L
> 10.0 mmol/L
4.0 to 7.0 mmol/L
4.0 to 10.0 mmol/L
Risk of hypoglycaemia
< 4.0 mmol/L
Your targets may vary depending on your condition; discuss this with your doctor or care team.
Abnormally fast heartbeat
Mood changes (e.g. anxiety, irritability, nervousness)
Changes in behaviour (e.g. confusion, weakness, unclear speech)
half a glassof sweetened drink.
Eat 3 soft candies (sugar-containing)
or sugar (glucose) tablets.
After 15 minutes, check blood sugar level.
symptoms persist or blood sugar level is low (< 4 mmol/L), repeat steps
1 & 2 one time.
symptoms persist after second attempt, seek medical advice (if your doctor is unavailable and it is an emergency, head to the A&E).
blood sugar level is ≥ 4 mmol/L, go to step 3.
Eat a light snack (e.g. bread, biscuits) or have your next meal earlier
to prevent blood sugar levels from
Record what happened prior to experiencing hypoglycaemia. If hypoglycaemia is
frequent, do a medication check with your doctor.
Do not skip meals even when busy.
Bring a few sugar-containing sweets along whenever you go out
extra carbohydrates before any
exercise or strenuous activity
take diabetes medication or insulin injection in the morning when fasting for a blood test
follow instructions on when to take your medication, especially in relation to meals
If you experience
hypoglycaemia frequently, check with your doctor if your medication needs adjustment
Blood sugar level > 15 mmol/L
blood sugar level more often
Drink plenty of
Seek medical advice if your blood sugar level is persistently
> 15 mmol/L (i.e. remaining very high for more than 24 hours)
The frequency of tests may vary depending on your condition