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By Health Promotion Board in collaboration with Adj A/Prof Yeo Cheo Lian, Senior Consultant, Department of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Allergies can occur at any age, and they may be caused by food or the environment. What’s an allergy? An allergy is when the immune system overreacts to normally harmless substances such as food, some medicine, venom from insects, pollen, and dust mites.

Food Allergy

The most common food allergen in Singapore is shellfish. Other common food allergies include:

  • Eggs
  • Cow’s milk
  • Peanuts and other tree nuts
  • Grains such as wheat, oat, and barley
  • Soy
  • Fish
  • Unique food allergens
    • Bird's nest
    • Royal jelly
    • Buckwheat

Related: Food Allergy

Signs of Allergic Reaction to Food

Most children with food allergies suffer mild reactions such as skin rashes. These rashes can appear immediately after the food contacts the mouth or skin, or after a few minutes or hours.

Coughing, vomiting and diarrhoea, hives and itching are other common reactions. Hives are commonly caused by food allergies, medicines and viral infections. These raised, red and itchy skin patches look like mosquito bites and can be found on different parts of the body. They usually appear in crops and do not stay at the same spot for more than a few hours.

Related: Inflammatory Skin Conditions

Other Types of Allergies

You may have heard of hay fever—a condition many people often confuse with the common cold but is actually a result of an allergic reaction to pollen. You may have friends who don’t have pets because they’re allergic to dogs or cats.

These are examples of allergies that are induced by environmental elements and such allergies can often cause or aggravate the following conditions:

  • Eczema
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
  • Asthma

Eczema

Eczema usually occurs on the cheeks, behind the ears and on the thighs in infants. As your child grows, these dry, itchy and red patches are often found in the folds of the neck, arms and legs.

While most types of eczema are not allergies, the condition can be aggravated when children are exposed to the elements that they are allergic to. Eczema can be worsened by contact with allergens such as house dust mites and animal fur.

Related: Contact Allergy

Contact Dermatitis

Unlike hives, these identical red itchy patches are confined to areas that are in direct contact with the allergen. This may include chemicals found in perfumes, cosmetics, detergents or plant substances such as poison ivy. In severe cases, the rashes may blister.

Related: Skin Disorders Caused by Cosmetics I

Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)

Allergic rhinitis is usually the result of breathing in house dust mites, mould and animal dander. Your child will sneeze often, and have an itchy and runny nose. He may also have a stuffy nose, and start to breathe through the mouth instead. Often, your child will also have watery and itchy eyes, which may become red and swollen.

Related: Allergic Rhinitis

Asthma

Children with asthma often have cough, tight chest or difficulty breathing. These signs are worse in the morning or at night and could also be due to exercise or physical activity. Common triggers include viral infections, cigarette smoke, house dust mites, animal fur, changes in weather condition, and even stress.

Related: Asthma (Child)

When to Seek Help

Regardless of the type of allergy you may suspect your child to have, please consult your doctor for advice if the symptoms persist.

Red flag: If your child looks pale, is wheezing, experiences trouble breathing and facial swelling, the allergy is life-threatening. These are possible signs of anaphylaxis, which is more likely to happen to children with food allergies. Call 995 for an ambulance immediately.

Related: Children Emergencies

Diagnosing Allergies in Babies and Toddlers

Keep a diary of your little one’s symptoms and take note of the food that you give your child. Be very careful especially when you are introducing a new food to your little one. Also pay attention to your child’s surroundings. If there’s a history of allergies in the family, do take note and inform your paediatrician as well.


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References:

  1. Dan Brennan, MD. (March 5, 2017). Allergies in Babies and Toddlers,  Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/allergies/allergies-babies-toddlers#1
  2. Allergies (Child). Retrieved November 2018 from https://www.singhealth.com.sg/PatientCare/ConditionsAndTreatments/Pages/Allergies-child-SGH.aspx
  3. Nasreen Majid. Quick Facts about Childhood Allergies in Singapore. Retrieved November 2018 from https://sg.theasianparent.com/childhood-allergies-singapore/
  4. Anjana Motihar Chandra. Allergic Rhinitis: Common in Children in Singapore. Retrieved November 2018 from https://www.healthxchange.sg/children/childhood-conditions/allergic-rhinitis-common-children-singapore
  5. Alison Joanne Lee, MBBS, MMed (Paeds) and Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, MBBS, MRCP. (May 2014). Food Allergy in Singapore: Opening a New Chapter. Singapore Med J. 2014 May; 55(5): 244–247. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2014065. Retrieved November 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4291979/
  6. Food Allergy. Retrieved November 2018 from https://www.nuh.com.sg/ktp-nucmi/health/diseases-and-conditions/allergies/food-allergy.html#src