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How antimicrobial resistance affects the general population?
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and
parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines, making
infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe
illness and death.
microbes become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, antibiotics and
other antimicrobial medicines become ineffective and infections become
increasingly difficult or impossible to treat. AMR is accelerated by human
activities such as the overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, plants
and animals, the spread of infections and the contamination of the environment.
important to prevent the spread of drug-resistant organisms by using
A: Antimicrobials – including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics –
are medicines used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and
A: AMR occurs when germs (such as bacteria, fungi and viruses) develop resistance to a specific antimicrobial drug (such as antibiotics and antivirals) after being exposed to it. As such, that particular drug becomes less effective or ineffective when used to treat the infection.
While drug resistance may be a natural evolutionary phenomenon, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have contributed to the increased occurrence of antibiotic resistance around the world. An example of misuse is when antibiotics are prescribed for common respiratory illnesses such as cold and flu , which are not caused by bacteria and therefore not treatable by antibiotics. Common viral infections that cause prolonged fever, such as glandular fever and dengue fever, cannot be treated with antibiotics as well.
A: “Superbug” is an informal term used to describe a germ that has grown resistant to multiple antibiotics.
The superbugs that have been identified by the CDC so far include carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (extended-spectrum β-lactamases), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter . These are mainly hospital germs; for example Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus are more likely to cause urinary infections, and Staphylococcus aureus can cause skin infections.
A: Superbugs can be spread from person to person especially in the hospital settings or even from food . For example, farm animals that are fed antibiotics to encourage faster growth or prevent infections may develop antibiotic-resistant germs. These germs could remain in the meat if the meat is not properly cooked. Although there is no conclusive evidence yet, this is one possible way that superbugs could be passed on to humans .
A: According to the World Health Organisation , superbugs may make it harder for us to effectively treat infections, leading to prolonged illness, higher healthcare costs and even death. The lack of effective antibiotics may have a negative impact on the success of common medical procedures such as chemotherapy, organ transplantation and surgery. In fact, doctors are concerned that even simple infections that arise from a cut may lead to death due to AMR and the lack of effective antibiotics.
A: Antibiotic resistance is a specific type of antimicrobial resistance, referring to the resistance to antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections such as skin infections, urine infections and lung infections .
On the other hand, antimicrobial resistance is a broader term that includes resistance to medication used to treat infections caused by microorganisms other than bacteria, including parasites (such as malaria), viruses (such as influenza, dengue and HIV) and fungi (such as yeast and mould).
A: Antibiotics kill bacteria either by attacking their cell walls or by inhibiting their growth. Viruses, however, have a different cell structure to bacteria and replicate in a different way. Hence, antibiotics are ineffective against them.
A: Bacterial and viral infections can bring about similar symptoms including fever, coughing, sneezing and vomiting, and it may be hard for an untrained eye to distinguish between them. This is why it is important for you to not self-medicate and to seek medical attention when you are ill with a bacterial or viral infection.
Your doctor will typically be able to diagnose the cause of your illness through asking you a series of questions, examining you and with the help of their expertise. Sometimes, additional blood or urine tests, or X-rays may be needed to confirm a diagnosis.
A: It is important for you to take the doses regularly as advised by your doctor, even if you think that you have recovered. In addition, never save your antibiotics for the next time you fall ill, as different illnesses require different medications. Please discuss with your doctor if you have any concerns about taking antibiotics.
A: Not all the bacteria that are making you ill may be gone from your body, even if you believe that you have recovered. As such, a shortened treatment may not be as effective , increasing the risk of you falling ill again. It also increases the risk of the bacteria becoming resistant to the type of antibiotics you were taking.
A: No, it is not recommended for you to share the antibiotics even if you think that you are suffering from the same illness. This is because the doctor has prescribed the medication based on your family member’s medical history and symptoms, which means that what is suitable for her may not be suitable for you and may even worsen your condition . This is why you should always check with your doctor and never self-medicate.
A: Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against antibiotic resistance by helping people to build up immunity against certain bacterial or viral infections, thereby reducing the risk of infection and the need for antibiotics. Please check the National Childhood Immunisation Schedule and National Adult Immunisation Schedule for more information about the recommended vaccinations. You may also consider protecting yourself by getting influenza vaccination every year.
A: All dogs and cats that are sold in pet shops or imported are required to be vaccinated . If you are unsure about the required vaccination for your pets, please check with your veterinarian.
A: Firstly, there are some simple steps you can take to reduce the spread of infection and thereby minimise the use of antibiotics:• Covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze• Washing your hands frequently with soap and water• Cultivating healthy lifestyle habits such as eating a nutritious diet and exercising regularly
Secondly, you should practise the prudent use of antibiotics to avoid accelerating the development of antibiotic resistance, such as:• Using antibiotics only when prescribed by a doctor• Following your doctor’s advice on how to take antibiotics• Not sharing your antibiotics with anyone• Do not demand antibiotics from your doctor
A: There is no conclusive evidence that antibacterial soap is more effective than regular soap. To prevent bacterial infections, wash your hands frequently with soap, especially after you go to the toilet and before you eat your meals.
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This article was last reviewed on
Tuesday, September 21, 2021
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