Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Learn to spot the symptoms of eating disorders and find out the treatment options available to sufferers.

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Eating disorders are serious psychological conditions that can have life-threatening physical consequences in men and women of any age.

They are commonly accompanied by extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviours with regards to body weight and food. All eating disorders require professional help. Treatment for eating disorders involves psychotherapy, nutrition education, counselling, medication, and hospitalisation in severe cases.

Three common types of eating disorders include:
Anorexia Nervosa: characterised by self-starvation and excessive weight loss
Bulimia Nervosa: characterised by a cycle of binge eating followed by purging. Sufferers consume excessive amounts of food and then get rid of the food and calories through vomiting, laxative abuse, or over-exercising
Binge Eating Disorder (Compulsive Overeating): characterised primarily by periods of uncontrolled, impulsive, or continuous eating beyond the point of feeling comfortably full


Causes of Eating Disorders

Exact causes of eating disorders are unknown. Researchers believe that it could be due to a complex interaction of biological, psychological, family, genetic, environmental, and social factors.

Possible causes of eating disorders include:
Family history of siblings or parents with eating disorders, which suggest a possible genetic link
Psychological issues such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, impulsive behavior, family conflicts, and troubled relationships
Socio-cultural issues, such as peer pressure and the intense focus on one’s appearance and body shape in the media


Risk Factors

Factors to look out for, which may increase the risk of developing eating disorders include:
Peer pressure, conventionally stronger in teenage girls and young women
Parents and family members overly critical of body weight and outward appearance
Other mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Stressful life transitions such as moving, broken relationships, or pregnancy
Professions that focus strongly on outward appearance or weight regulations, such as acting, modelling, dancing and wrestling


Symptoms of Eating Disorders


Eating disorder symptoms may vary with the specific type of eating disorder.

Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa Include:

Intense fear of weight gain or looking fat
Feeling fat or overweight despite dramatic weight loss
Loss of menstrual period
Extreme concern with body weight and shape
Brittle nails
Hair that thins, breaks, or falls out
Constipation
Dry skin

Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa Include:

Repeated episodes of binge eating and purging
Feeling out of control during a binge and eating beyond the point of comfortable fullness
Purging after binge eating, typically by self-induced vomiting, abuse of laxatives, diet pills, and/or diuretics
Frequent extreme dieting
Extreme concern with body weight and shape
Damaged teeth and gums
Swollen salivary glands in the cheeks
Sores in the throat and mouth

Binge Eating Disorder Symptoms Include:

Periods of uncontrolled, impulsive, or continuous eating beyond the point of feeling comfortably full
No purging following overeating
Feeling depressed, disgusted or upset over the amount eaten
Depression or anxiety
Eating significantly more food during a binge episode than during a normal meal or snack
Feeling that eating behaviour is out of control


Treatment

Eating disorder treatments typically include:
Psychotherapy
Counselling
Nutrition advice
Educating youths and adolescents
Medication


Lifestyle Changes

In addition to getting professional help, sufferers of eating disorders can also use these coping methods.
Boost self-esteem — get involved in interesting activities like learning a new skill, developing a hobby, and participating in social or recreational groups
Be aware and not overtly influenced by media conventions
Resist the urge to diet or skip meals as a weight management technique
Get familiar with and maintain a healthy body mass index (BMI)
Follow healthy role models

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Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

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